Skincare Ingredients & Terms Checker A-Z

Understanding the Ingredients in Skincare products is essential.
BY Chella Caguin
| August, 2021
Skincare Ingredients Checker A-Z

Skincare products have become essential in our everyday lives. It helps us improve the glow and texture of our skin, especially when we are undergoing skin breakouts and dryness. These products can also help improve aging, fine lines, and dark spots in our skin. That’s why the generation today has been investing in skincare products and is careful about the ingredients like their lives depend on it.  

Since there are thousands of skincare products available in the market, understanding the ingredients in skincare products is essential. Consumers must always take time to understand the compounds they apply to the body. Learning about the elements that will significantly benefit the skin is as important as watching for ingredients that may harm the skin

A

AÇAÍ 

Coming from palm trees widely found in South America, this skincare ingredient is a known antioxidant that protects the body’s cells from the destructive potential of reactive oxygen species. It is an alternative to other tropical oils and is widely used among body creams and face products. 

Acetone

This colorless chemical naturally found in the environment has many uses in personal care and cosmetics. Acetone is frequently incorporated in skincare products because of its ability to cleanse the excess sebum present. However, individuals must use this carefully because it can become hazardous to the skin as well. 

Acidic

In terms of chemistry, acidic pertains to a substance with a low pH. Acidic substances can digest the dead skill cells and dissolve them completely. Examples of acids used in skincare include alpha and beta hydroxy acids.  

Acne

The moment the pores of your skin become clogged with sebum, dirt, bacteria, a pimple may ensue. If this happens repeatedly, this condition is called acne. Globally, acne is the most common and severe skin condition and is common among the adolescent group. You may find it anywhere in the body, but it commonly pops in the face, neck, and back.  

Active Ingredient

It is an ingredient that addresses a particular skin concern. When a product is marketed as an “anti-aging” product, the active ingredient will be something that targets explicitly aging. However, every product won’t have skincare active—and this doesn’t mean that it’s not worth using. Some examples of Active ingredients are Hyaluronic acid, Retinol, Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), Vitamin C, Beta hydroxy acids (BHAs), Niacinamide, Peptide and Ceramides.

Adenosine 

This chemical is present in the cells of the human body. The anti-aging effect of adenosine leads to the disappearance of wrinkles in the skin, leaving it energized and invigorated. It also improves the skin’s smoothness and offers a youthful complexion. Adenosine is also known to stimulate the cells’ collagen production that leads to firmer skin.  

Aesthetics

Aesthetics involves an aesthetician beautifying the skin in various ways. Eventually, it can include analyzing the skin closely, performing facials, microdermabrasion, chemical peels, laser skin resurfacing, micro-needling, waxing facial hair, extractions, exfoliation, and facial massages.

Agar 

Agar is derived from seaweeds and is a polysaccharide with a gelatinous consistency. It is mainly used as a thickening and emulsifying agent in skincare products, but it also helps keep the skin hydrated because of its moisture-retention property. Thus, the skin has a lesser tendency to dry up and flake.   

Algin 

Also known as alginic acid, it originated from alginate. This naturally occurring polymer comes from brown algae and is used in skincare products for its emulsifying properties. It helps thicken moisturizers and enhances their texture to become more spreadable. Algin also improves the delivery of nutrients and water to the skin. 

Alguronic Acid

This patented ingredient found in skincare products is a mix of molecules resulting from growing microalgae in cultures. Alguronic acid offers rejuvenation and anti-aging properties that benefit the skin. It also protects the skin from harmful and damaging substances. 

Alkaline 

A substance comes with a higher pH. Contrary to acidic skincare products, alkaline skincare products focus more on cleansing and protecting the skin. When alkaline products interact with the acid present in the skin, they remove these acids and help release waste products. 

Allantoin 

This ingredient comes from the roots of the comfrey plant. This non-irritating ingredient offers protection to the skin, along with its soothing properties. It enhances the stimulation of new tissue growth that helps heal broken or damaged skin. Aside from that, it also softens the skin and improves its texture. 

Aloe vera / Aloe barbadensis 

Aloe vera comes from aloe plants and has long been used because of its healing and softening properties. This ingredient has antibacterial properties that fight acne-producing bacteria present in the skin. It also unclogs the pores because it naturally contains salicylic acid.  

Alpha-hydroxy Acids (AHAs)

AHAs are a group of natural acids which is found in various skincare products. It includes glycolic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, and more. Products containing alpha hydroxy acids are commonly used for dry and aging skin and acne-prone skin. It works by taking the top layer containing dead skin cells off, which helps remove the skin’s impurities.  

Alpha-lipoic Acid

The mitochondria manufacture this organic compound in every cell of the human body. However, it is only produced in trace amounts, so it must be supplied through other means. It is a good source of antioxidants that protects the skin from the harmful effects of free radicals. Alpha-lipoic acid also acts as a protective barrier against the damaging effects of UV light rays.  

Amino Acids

Play a significant role in one’s overall skin health. Some amino acids work hand in hand with aquaporins to ensure your skin gets the proper moisture it needs. Some amino acids also serve as antioxidants that fight off harmful substances, help lessen the visible indications of aging, and make the skin look tighter and firmer. 

Anthocyanins 

One of the most notable causes of skin aging is UV light exposure. Thankfully, anthocyanins, a group of naturally occurring pigments, helps protect the skin from the damaging effects of UV rays. Anthocyanins are thought to reduce metalloproteinases (MMP) production that damages the collagen and elastin of the skin, hence reducing the accelerated aging potential of the UV rays.  

Antioxidants 

Oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species and environmental stressors in the body is inevitable. Antioxidants are substances that protect the cells in the body against these damaging aggressors. It is most commonly incorporated in skincare products because of its powerful protective and anti-aging properties.  

Arbutin 

Arbutin is a substance found in bearberry plants. This brightener works by preventing the formation of melanin in the skin. It also lessens the tendency of the skin to turn darker after getting sun exposure. Unlike other ingredients that can brighten the skin, arbutin is very gentle and less irritating, perfect for sensitive skin.  

Argan Oil 

Argan oil is widely popular as one of the best ingredients added in skincare products, and it originates from the Argan tree, commonly found in Morocco. It contains anti-aging properties that help improve the skin’s elasticity and reduce unwanted wrinkles and sagging. Also, this oil is rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and helps get rid of harmful organisms in the skin. 

Arginine 

First isolated from pumpkin seedlings, this amino acid plays a role in the biosynthesis of proteins. This ingredient improves the circulation of the bloodstream by releasing nitric oxide. Arginine is also known to protect the skin from the damage of free radicals and supports collagen production.  

Argireline 

This synthetic amino acid is used in skincare products because it is known to lessen the formation of wrinkles and fine lines. Argireline works by limiting the nerves present in the face to contract, leading to fewer wrinkles and lines formation. It is also known to enhance collagen production, leaving the skin firmer, stronger, and more youthful.  

Arnica 

This ingredient originates from a perennial herb similar-looking to daisies. This herb is frequently turned into essential oils and extracts and is incorporated in skincare products. One of the most known benefits of arnica is relieving pain and reducing swelling by enhancing circulation. Arnica also has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. 

Ascorbic Acid

This particular ingredient contains antioxidants that help the skin combat UV light damage during sun exposure. Ascorbic acid also helps wounds heal better and strengthens the immune system. It can help the skin feel and look younger, firmer, and brighter at the proper pH.  

Avena Sativa

Avena sativa is known as the oat plant; it is typically turned into extracts and incorporated in several skincare products. This ingredient imparts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that significantly help individuals with atopic dermatitis, pruritus, and acneiform breakouts. Avena sativa helps to protect the skin from UV rays.

Avobenzone 

Avobenzone is dibenzoyl methane derivative. It is an oil soluble ingredient and is an active chemical ingredient in some sunscreens. Avobenzone has the ability to absorb ultraviolet light over wider range of wavelengths. This ingredient is usually fused in sunscreens to protect the skin by absorbing the UV rays and avoid sunburns and potential malignancies.

Azelaic Acid

Popular among dermatologists and skincare experts, azelaic acid is known for its gentleness and versatility in skincare products. It is best for individuals experiencing acne, rosacea, and hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid offers deep cleansing and removes dirt, and dead skill cells, soothe acne’s irritations and inhibits the enzyme that causes hyperpigmentation in the skin.  

B

Barley EGF 

This age-defying serum is developed to fight against visible signs of aging and promote skin rejuvenation. This ingredient contains epidermal growth factor (EGF), a vital protein responsible for collagen and elastin production. Aging causes a decline in these substances, and barley EGF helps reduce the wrinkles and fine lines and gives the skin a plumper and firmer look. 

Bakuchiol 

Found in the seeds and leaves of the Psoralea corylifolia plant, this antioxidant-rich ingredient is indeed worth every penny. This ingredient is known for fighting free radicals and signs of aging like wrinkles and fine lines. Bakuchiol also calms and soothes the skin and helps protect it from pollution and harmful microorganisms.  

Barrier function 

Skin is composed of three layers and is the largest organ of the human body. One of the skin’s primary functions is to serve as a protective barrier between the person and its surroundings. And so, an intact barrier function should be present. In the case of any disturbances in barrier function, local or systemic diseases may ensue.  

Bentonite 

Bentonite originates from fine powder forms of volcanic ashes and is famous for its advantages. It helps protect the skin and clears it from impurities by absorbing the dirt present in the deepest layers of the skin. It can also be used to combat acne-producing bacteria and helps heal skin infections as well. The trace minerals found in this ingredient also help take care of the skin better! 

Benzoyl peroxide 

If you are tired of having breakouts and acne-pestered faces, this particular skincare ingredient is perfect for you! This medication is designed to help improve mild to moderate acne problems. The acne-causing bacteria found in the skin is reduced by benzoyl peroxide and helps hasten the drying and peeling of acne. 

Beta-carotene 

Maintenance of healthy skin and appearance is one of the best benefits beta-carotene can offer. This compound which is converted into retinol, helps the skin glow and become protected against UV radiation. It also provides antioxidant properties that keep the skin glowing and fresh-looking all day long! 

Beta-glucans

This particular ingredient is a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants, algae, and mushrooms. Beta-glucans are added to several skincare products because of their ability to combat and protect the skin from offending pathogens present in the environment. Aside from their protective property, beta-glucans also calm and soothe inflamed or irritated skin.  

Beta-hydroxy acid (BHA) 

Unlike alpha-hydroxy acids, beta hydroxy acids are lipid-soluble and can easily penetrate the deepest layers of the pores. Because of this, beta-hydroxy acids can easily remove the sebum and dirt build-up inside the pores. It leaves the skin exfoliated and clean – both inside and out. 

Biocellulose 

Biocellulose is a natural fiber used to treat chronic wounds & burns and has also made its way into skincare products like masks. Since its fibers can absorb moisture thoroughly, it is a perfect carrier for nutrients in the skin. It helps reduce the fine lines and wrinkles and improves the skin’s elasticity at the same time.  

Bio Retinol

The term “bio retinol” can be a bit misleading because it’s not just one compound or one product. It includes plant-based oils and compounds such as bakuchiol, sea buckthorn oil, rosehip oil, carrot oil and sea samphire. Each of these forms of bio retinol has its respective benefits for the skin. Still, they help increase cellular turnover to mimic the effects of retinol and deliver younger-looking skin over time.

Biostimulatory filler 

It involves a procedure where fillers are injected into a specific part of the face to give a plumping effect instantly. However, its effect is not something permanent. It helps stimulate the body to manufacture its own collagen to help the face look firmer, fuller, and plumper for a more extended period.  

Biotin 

Also known as vitamin B7, it is mainly used as an ingredient in hair products and moisturizing skin care products. It aids in the formation of fatty acids that help nourish the skin along with its soothing properties. This ingredient also helps produce stronger, shinier, and thicker hail. Biotin is also suitable for individuals with brittle nails because it can improve and make the nails stronger.  

Bisabolol 

Bisabolol is a colorless oil with a viscous consistency and natural ingredient. It is typically used among skincare products as a fragrance. This ingredient soothes skin inflammation by inhibiting cytokines and helps treat and prevent skin infections caused by bacteria and fungi. Its antioxidant property also helps neutralize free radicals that cause signs of aging.  

Blackhead 

When dirt, bacteria, and dead skin cells clog the pores and hair follicles, blackheads occur. These bumps are called as such because they appear dark on the surface. Blackheads are a milder form of acne and typically appear on the face, chest, and back.  

Blue Light Therapy

It uses natural violet or blue light within a specific wavelength range to treat the skin. Therapy devices use light from an LED (light-emitting diode) bulb to target particular areas. This light penetrates pores and hair follicles to reach the sources of skin problems, particularly acne and discoloration. You can use it for conditions on the skin’s surface or just underneath.

Botox 

Obtained from Clostridium botulinum, it is a treatment for fine lines and wrinkles that appear as one ages. The toxin blocks the signals coming from the nerves to the muscles so they will not contract. Hence, the fine lines and wrinkles soften and relax. It is usually injected on the forehead lines, eye lines, and laugh lines. Typically, its effect may last up to 3 to 6 months.  

Broad-spectrum 

It commonly pertains to medications such as antibiotics and the range they cover. Broad-spectrum drugs are active against a wider number and type of pathogens. This broad spectrum is particularly helpful when the offending pathogen is not yet identified. On the other hand, narrow-spectrum medications are active against a more selected group of pathogens.  

Broken Capillaries

These are small blood vessels that have been damaged and have burst underneath the skin. You’ll see what appear to be minor red veins, most commonly around the nose and cheeks.

Bromelain 

An enzyme used as a skincare ingredient and is extracted from pineapple stems. It has exfoliating properties that dissolve the protein that binds the skin cells. Bromelain helps loosen the dead skin cells present up and peel away from the surface. It also has a lesser tendency to irritate the skin because it does not go as deep as other ingredients.  

BTL VANQUISH ME 

This non-surgical and painless procedure involves flattening the stomach, back fats, thighs, and upper arms by burning fat through a machine. It is an FDA-approved procedure that utilizes radiofrequency energy and targets the fat layer while ensuring the muscle and surrounding skin are protected. To notice effects, it takes 4 to 6 sessions, around 45 to 60 minutes per session.  

Butylene glycol 

This chemical ingredient found in self-care products helps keep the skin moisturized and conditioned. It improves the skin and hair’s texture by adding a layer of softness that benefits users with dry skin and acne breakouts. However, this ingredient may tend to clog the pores and cause further acne problems. For best results, consult your doctor if this ingredient suits you. 

C

Caffeine 

Most skincare users may not know, but caffeine as an ingredient in skincare products offers a lot. Its main benefit is decreasing puffiness, especially under-eye puffiness. Caffeine can also improve circulation resulting in glowing and fresh-looking skin. Aside from these benefits, it also helps remove free radicals because of its antioxidant properties.  

Calamine 

If you are experiencing skin itchiness and irritation, calamine lotion is the perfect remedy for you! It’s being used for a long time because it helps with minor skin conditions like insect bites and pruritus. Calamine is also used as an acne treatment because of its drying properties.  

Cannabidiol (CBD) 

Cannabidiol is known as a naturally occurring chemical extracted from cannabis plants and is a non-psychoactive substance used in skincare products because of its benefits. It offers antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that significantly improve conditions like dryness, aging, and inflammation. It also helps combat acne by lessening sebum production.  

Carnitine 

Based on studies, carnitine or carboxylic acid is a promising ingredient for individuals with oily skin. It helps cleanse the skin and lessen the production of sebum that causes acne breakouts. It contains antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties that help improve the appearance and fight off free radicals that damage healthy skin.  

Carnosine 

The resulting compound is when amino acids histidine and alanine are combined. This skincare ingredient functions as an antioxidant in several skincare products by scavenging the reactive oxygen species that cause radical damage in the body’s cells. Carnosine also enhances the synthesis of collagen that helps the skin become firmer with less visible signs of aging.  

Casein 

Casein is a protein that belongs to the group of phosphoproteins found in milk. This ingredient is mainly utilized in skincare products as a thickener, stabilizer, and leavening agent. Studies show that casein also plays a role as an antioxidant. 

Cell communication 

Our human body contains millions of cells. To function the body in an organized manner and to give and receive important messages, cells must communicate with one another. It occurs so the information is processed and we can take appropriate action. Cell signaling or communication allows every single cell in the body to coordinate with one another.  

Cellfina 

A minimally invasive, non-surgical procedure that helps lessen the appearance of unwanted cellulite in specific parts of the body. This procedure involves using a microblade technique that targets the fibrous bands that form cellulite on the patient’s buttocks or thighs. The minimal downtime with this procedure is that it does not affect the patient’s activities of daily living.  

Cellulite 

One of the most typical problems that women encounter is the presence of cellulite. These are dimpled and lumpy flesh found on the abdomen, buttocks, hips, and thighs. The cause is unclear, but it is most associated with the fibrous connective cords in the skin attached to the muscle underneath and subcutaneous tissue in between.  

Ceramide 

This skincare ingredient is composed of long-chain fatty acids that combine with other essential molecules to enhance the functions of the cells. This fatty acid retains moisture in the skin by creating a protective barrier from irritation and dryness. Ceramide also promotes anti-aging effects that prevent the formation of fine lines and wrinkles.  

Cetyl/stearyl alcohol 

This multifunction skincare ingredient is fatty alcohol commonly incorporated among skincare products. Cetyl alcohol can smoothen and soften the flakiness present in the skin that helps reduce the dryness. As an emollient, it helps create a protective barrier in the skin that helps retain the moisture and keeps other elements out that leave the skin hydrated and soothed.  

Chamomile flower extract

Chamomile flower extract is obtained from the flowers of Matricaria Recutita. When combined with water and glycerin, the extract can now be used in skincare products because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This extract limits the release of histamine, which inhibits inflammation and protects the skin from the damaging effects of free radicals. 

Cholesterol 

This organic molecule is commonly used in skincare ingredients because it helps improve the skin’s natural barrier function. It also enhances the moisture content in the skin by creating a protective layer that retains the moisture and regulation of the cell activities. Cholesterol as a skincare ingredient is suitable for users with dry and sensitive skin.  

Citric acid 

This hydroxy acid naturally found in citrus fruits has long been used in skincare products because of its beneficial effects. Citric acid helps exfoliate the outermost part of the skin that helps remove the dead skin cell layers, and leaves the skin smooth, clean, and clear. It also hydrates the matrix of the skin that helps reduce the formation of wrinkles and fine lines.  

Clean Beauty

The term “clean beauty” refers to beauty and skincare products that are free of potentially harmful ingredients. You’ll also see terms like “non-toxic,” “green,” and “natural” often associated with clean beauty, but these aren’t necessarily the same thing.

Coenzyme Q10 (Ubiquinone) 

Ubiquinone is one of the most vital antioxidants naturally produced by the body. This enzyme is needed to ensure the proper function of the cells, which helps improve the cells’ function and repair the damages, leaving the skin healthier. It also reduces the effect and potential damage of UV light rays exposure and stimulates the production of elastin and collagen. 

Coffeeberry 

This antioxidant and anti-aging extract obtained from coffee beans are commonly used to help repair the damage brought by free radicals. The polyphenols present in this ingredient helps neutralize the harmful substances before it can affect the skin. In turn, coffeeberry leaves the skin healthier and more protected.  

Collagen

Collagen is a naturally-produced protein in the body. Nowadays, it is also being used in beauty supplements and skincare products because of its promising effects. This ingredient claims to improve the elasticity of the skin that reduces the visible signs of aging. It is also thought to increase the skin’s blood flow, leaving it more nourished and glowing. 

Comedogenic

Skincare products pertain to substances that can clog up the pores and may eventually cause acne. When choosing skincare products, do a little research to ensure that your purchases are non-comedogenic and are less likely to cause product build-up that leads to acne.  

Comedones 

Are papules or tiny bumps mostly found on the chin and forehead? Comedones develop when there is blockage of sebaceous ducts due to increased sebum production caused by excess hormone production, free fatty acids, lifestyle factors, comedogenic skincare products, and many more. 

CoolSculpting

Cryolipolysis or CoolSculpting is a non-invasive procedure aiming to remove body fat in particular areas. The process involves vacuuming the skin just above the layer of fatty tissue. The fat cells are cooled afterward until it breaks down. This one is a remarkably safe procedure because the surrounding layers do not get affected by the cold.  

Copper Peptides 

Copper Peptides is known as one of the most famous beauty trends today, and it causes significant skin improvement. This ingredient is known to promote the production of collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and elastin. Because of this, copper peptides can reduce fine lines and wrinkles significantly. This ingredient also leaves the skin smoother, firmer, and more protected because of its antioxidant properties. 

Cystic Acne 

Acne starts when a pore or hair follicle gets clogged with dirt, bacteria, and sebum. When it becomes infected and goes deep in the skin, this will lead to significant, red, and painful bumps called cystic acne. It may lead to permanent scars when popped and leave uneven indentions and deep and wide pits in the skin.  

D

Decyl glucoside 

It is a non-ionic surfactant with an excellent foaming capacity and skin-friendly properties. This ingredient is incorporated in bath soaps, cleansers, and shampoos because of its ability to lather quickly. And because it is a surfactant, it can cleanse the dirt and sebum present in the skin by removing the surface tension between sebum and water.  

Dermis

The skin is composed of three primary layers, including the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. Being in the middle of the skin, it is the thickest layer made of elastic and fibrous tissue. This layer is also the one responsible for the skin’s flexibility and strength. The dermis comprises two layers – the papillary layers made of thin and loose connective tissue and the reticular layer containing dense connective tissue.  

Differin Gel 

A medication used to treat acne problems. It promotes rapid healing of acne and decreases the quantity and severity of acne as well. Differin gel belongs under the classification of retinoids known for their anti-inflammatory properties that reduce swelling and inflammation. 

Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) 

This white, crystalline powder incorporated in skincare products is primarily used in creating self-tanning products. When applied to the skin, it imparts a color due to its reaction to the skin surface’s amino acids. Aside from this, DHA also improves flaky and dry skin by restoring moisture and keeping it supple.  

Dimethicone 

A silicone-based polymer is commonly incorporated into skincare products because of its protective properties. Dimethicone coats the skin and keeps it moisturized by retaining the moisture, leaving it soft and smooth. It also helps improve the glide of the skincare products when applied.  

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) 

This compound used in skincare products is thought to offer anti-aging benefits to its users. DMAE helps reduce visible signs of aging like wrinkles, under-eye circles, and sagging skin. This ingredient also helps prevent inflammation and keeps the skin firm and taut.  

DNA repair enzymes 

Damage to the DNA may be due to UV light exposure, free radicals, radiation, and other environmental factors. DNA repair enzymes help recognize and repair damaged DNA. This maintenance and repair help prevent the loss of vital genetic information, breaking strands, and problems with cross-linkages.  

Double cleanse 

Double Cleanse is a process of cleaning the face for the first round using micellar water, balms, or cleansing oils to remove makeup and skincare products on the face. A deep water-based cleansing then follows the first round of cleansing. Through double cleansing, dead skin cells, bacteria, and sebum from the deeper layers thoroughly.  

Dysport 

Similar to a botox injection, Dysport also involved the use of botulinum toxin. It is known to reduce the presence of wrinkles in the face conveniently without any downtime. The effects of Dysport may show quicker when compared to botox. However, the results of botox may outlast the effects of Dysport.  

E

Eczema

Eczema

Pertains to a group of prevalent conditions that manifest itchiness, inflammation, with a rash-like appearance. Despite eczema being common, especially in the United States, it is not contagious. Why eczema happens is still unknown, but researchers believe environmental and genetic factors play a significant role in the condition.  

Elastin 

A protein found in the connective tissue is responsible for the elasticity of the different structures in the skin. It can coil and recoil, and it works hand in hand with collagen to provide rigidity. The peak amount of elastin produced is during puberty and declines as one age.  

Ellagic acid 

This antioxidant-rich polyphenol helps brighten the skin complexion and lessen the hyperpigmentation present on the surface. Ellagic acid also protects the skin from the harmful effects of UV light. Research shows that it is safe and gentle and helps enhance collagen production, making the skin firmer and tighter.  

Emollient 

When our skin lacks moisturization, it tends to dry out and crack. Emollients are skincare ingredients meant to soften flaky, rough, and dry skin surfaces because of the fatty acids and lipids they contain. They also act as occlusive agents that form a thin layer of oil in the skin to help retain the moisture.  

Emulsifier 

Emulsifier is necessary for skincare ingredients because it helps incorporate or blend substances that do not mesh well, like water and oil. It also has a significant role in improving the absorption of skincare products when applied topically.  

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) 

EGCG is a unique compound obtained from plants that are thought to act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Free radicals present in the body do not do much damage because the antioxidant properties of EGCG protect the cells. EGCG can also suppress Pro-inflammatory chemicals in the body to reduce the tendency of inflammation.  

Erythrulose 

This carbohydrate extracted from red berries is primarily used in combination with dihydroxyacetone to produce self-tanning products. When the sugar it contains reacts with the amino acids present in the skin, it gives off a brown pigment in the skin temporarily. The color begins to wear off once the skin sheds the uppermost layer. 

Essence 

This water-based product contains substances that protect, boost, and hydrate skin. It is usually applied after thoroughly cleaning the face, using cleanser and toner, and applied before moisturizers and serums to enhance absorption. It helps protect the skin, rehydrate the cells, and smoothen and soften the surface. 

eTwo laser 

This laser treatment is a combination of sublime skin contouring and sublative rejuvenation. It involves radio-frequency energy that targets to reduce the visible signs of aging, wrinkling, large pores, and acne scarring. This treatment is effective for all types of skin colors with minimal downtime and discomfort.  

Exilis 

Exilis is a procedure that aims to tone and tighten the skin, contour the body, and eliminate fat deposits without undergoing invasive treatments. The use of radiofrequency technology targets improving the overall condition of the skin by reducing unwanted fats in certain areas like the neck, jowls, abdomen, and arms.  

F

Ferulic acid 

This skincare ingredient is a plant-based antioxidant incorporated in several products because of the antioxidant properties it offers. It is known to fight free radicals, protect the skin cells, and enhance the activity of other antioxidants and vitamins. Ferulic acid also stabilizes the effects of vitamin C in the body, which helps minimize sun exposure damage.  

Feverfew 

Feverfew has been used in folklore medicine for the longest time to treat headaches and fever. In skincare products, it is incorporated because of its ability to reduce skin irritation and facial redness. Feverfew as an extract also helps soothe the skin through its antioxidant properties.  

Fibroblasts 

Fibroblasts are known as the most common variety of cells found in connective tissues, and these cells release collagen that is important in the skin’s structure and rigidity. They also play a significant role in wound healing. It also secretes ground substances and fibrous proteins, which make up the extracellular matrix of the skin. 

Filler 

Ingredients in skincare products are components incorporated to add bulk or texture to the product. All in all, fillers are not a necessary part of skincare products, nor do they improve. However, it makes the final product more suitable for use and keeps the whole product balanced.  

Filaggrin 

This gene is responsible for manufacturing profilaggrin, a larger protein found in the cells that comprise the skin’s outermost layer. Filaggrin plays an essential responsibility in the skin’s barrier function by bringing structural proteins together to become a tight bundle. Filaggrin is also responsible for the production of the natural moisturizing factor of the skin. 

Flavonoids 

Flavonoids belong to polyphenol, a group of natural plant compounds. These are typically used for skincare products because of their high antioxidant properties, protecting the skin from environmental stress and damage. They are also known to protect the skin from the damage caused by UV light rays, so they are used in sunscreens and lotions.  

Fractional laser

This non-invasive and non-surgical procedure involves delivering laser beams into the target surface with a combination of ablative and non-ablative techniques. It is mainly used to treat signs of aging, skin pigmentation, acne and surgical scars, and sun damage. Fractional laser can target any part of the body, but it is highly effective when used in the chest, hands, and neck.  

Fragrances 

Are made of different substances and added to skincare products to give them a distinct scent. Most of the fragrances being used are derived from natural materials or petroleum. It helps cosmetics and skincare products have a pleasant smell and cover any unwanted or strong scents.  

Free radicals

These particles are made of unstable atoms from split oxygen molecules looking for other molecules to bond to. As this continues, it is now termed oxidative stress. These molecules can damage the cells and cause aging and diseases. The skin becomes less elastic and sagging, wrinkles start to appear, and hair changes may ensue. 

Fruit enzymes 

Fruit Enzymes are extracted from different kinds of fruit. These enzymes help give the skin a radiant and healthier glow. The outermost layer of the skin is made up of dead skin cells; fruit enzymes help break these cells down for easier cleaning. In turn, the skin becomes smoother, fairer, and healthier.  

G

Genistein

A plant component most commonly obtained from soy and may also be synthetically derived. This antioxidant-rich skincare ingredient improves the skin by binding to the estrogen receptors, leading to increased moisture, reduced fine lines and skin wrinkling, and enhanced wound healing. This ingredient is beneficial in post-menopausal women. 

Glabridin

Glabridin is a plant extract belonging to the polyphenol group and is primarily used in licorice extract. This ingredient gently lightens the skin effectively and rapidly by blocking the action of tyrosinase, an enzyme known to darken the skin. According to studies, glabridin’s inhibitory mechanism is better when compared to other whitening agents, such as vitamin C, kojic acid, and arbutin.  

Glucosamine 

Being a naturally occurring sugar found in the body, glucosamine is used as a component in skincare ingredients. It is used primarily because of its known benefits: improving the skin’s hydration, decreasing the signs of aging, and inhibiting the tyrosinase enzyme. As a result, the skin looks younger, lighter, and moisturized.  

Glycation

Glycation is a non-enzymatic chemical reaction that occurs when linkages of proteins are replaced by glucose leading to an excess of the substance in the skin fibers. As a result, the glucose molecules attach to the elastin and collagen proteins that make them rigid, which loses the ability to make the skin firm and tight.  

Glycerin 

Glycerin is derived from animal fats and vegetable oils, and it is considered a moisturizing agent added in skincare products. It is known to pull water from the deeper layers of the skin into the outer layer. It is typically used with occlusives, a skincare product that helps trap moisture in the skin. 

Glycolic acid 

Considered an alpha-hydroxy acid and a humectant, glycolic acid is a vital skincare ingredient that helps improve acne, aging, dryness, and hyperpigmentation. Glycolic acid binds with the dead skin cells in the skin and exfoliates the surface to reduce the fine lines. Glycolic acid also keeps our skin hydrated and moisturized because of its humectant properties.  

Glutamine

Glutamine is a naturally occurring non-essential amino acid present in the cells of the body. It enhances the skin cells and keeps the skin young and radiant-looking. It also plays a role in maturing fibroblast cells that secrete collagen to keep the skin firm and youthful.  

Goji berry extract 

Obtained from goji fruit found in subtropical regions of China, goji berry extract is considered a “superfood” due to all its benefits. This ingredient is primarily added in skincare products that improve the complexion and offer anti-aging properties.  It down-regulates the function of enzymes that causes darkening and protects the skin from free radicals too.  

Grape Seed extract 

A skincare ingredient is well-known because of the properties it brings to the table. It contains the potent antioxidant, proanthocyanidins, that protect the cells from free radical damage. Grape seed extract also offers protection from damage caused by UVA and UVA light rays. Grape Seed extract also keeps the overall appearance of the skin healthier!  

Green tea 

This skincare ingredient is obtained from the tea plant Camellia sinensis. The polyphenols green tea contains anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that keep the skin healthy. Aside from protecting the skin from free radicals, it also lessens the signs of aging and minimizes the amount of sebum on the skin.  

Growth factors

These are proteins that are responsible for regulating cell growth and their proliferation and differentiation. Growth factors are known to enhance collagen and elastin formation that helps keep the skin firm and tight. Skincare products with this ingredient help reduce the wrinkles present and improve the skin’s texture and tone. 

Guarana 

A Brazilian plant commonly found in the Amazon basin. Its extract is used for skincare products because of its rich antioxidant properties that help neutralize the effects of free radicals and keep the cells protected. It also reduces the visible signs of aging, such as wrinkles and fine lines.  

H

Heliocare 

A skincare product that aims to give a full range of protection against the damaging effects of UV light rays. This product contains Samambaia extract rich in antioxidants to help defend the cells from environmental stressors. It comes in sunscreen, capsule, spray, gel, and cream. 

Helioplex

Helioplex is a skincare technology that offers the best broad-spectrum protection against UVA and UVB light rays. UVA light rays contribute to accelerated aging and evident wrinkles, sagging, and dark spots. On the other hand, UVB may cause sunburn. With the stable ingredients of Helioplex, optimal sun protection is provided.  

Hemp Seed oil 

This green oil with a nutty flavor is obtained from hemp seed and offers many benefits to the skin. It is known to moderate sebum production to minimize oiliness and to keep it hydrated. Hempseed oil also soothes inflammation because of its anti-inflammatory properties and keeps the skin moisturized too.  

Humectants 

Humectants are substances that moisturize the skin. These are commonly found in lotions and other beauty products. Some humectants pull moisture from the air into the upper layer of the skin to keep it moisturized, some moisturize the skin and hair directly, and some scrape off the dead cells before giving moisture.  

Hyaluronic acid 

This sugar naturally found in the skin is used in skincare products because of its ability to bind water to collagen and trap it within the skin. Thus, the skin appears more hydrated and plumper. The skin easily absorbs hyaluronic acid, so it works better when applied topically than injectables.  

Hydrafacial 

A facial treatment that involves using a swirling action designed to cleanse and exfoliate the face. It also peels the dead skin, impurities, and debris through vacuum suction. During this treatment, a hydrating serum is applied to the skin to ensure clean and soothed skin.  

Hydration 

For hydration to occur, the moisture from the air must be absorbed and infused into the skin cells. As a result, the retained water helps the skin absorb and retain the nutrients keeping it healthy and radiant. When the water content in the skin cells increases, dryness and flakiness are less likely to occur.  

Hydrogel

Are commonly infused in face masks, have a gel-like consistency that can efficiently deliver substances and nutrients into the skin. Hydrogel masks lock in moisture and keep the skin nourished and hydrated, and they can penetrate deeply into the innermost layers.  

Hydrolyzed collagen 

Hydrolyzed collagen comes from a mixture of several peptides from the process of hydrolysis of collagen. And this skincare ingredient is widely used to enhance the texture and appearance of the skin and hair. Hydrolyzed collagen can revive dry and damaged skin because it restores the suppleness and radiance of the skin and hair.  

Hydroquinone

This skincare ingredient incorporated in various products helps lighten the skin and is an effective treatment for hyperpigmentation. Hydroquinone works by limiting the number of melanocytes, the cells responsible for skin tone pigmentation, present in the skin. As a result, the complexion becomes lighter and fairer over time.  

Hydroxypinacolone retinoate 

It belongs to the retinoid family and has anti-aging properties. This skincare ingredient can easily bind to the receptors, leading to reduced blemishes and pigmentation marks. The fines and wrinkles are also decreased, along with less sebum production and improved skin texture.  

Hyperpigmentation 

A condition wherein skin surfaces turn darker than usual. It occurs because of excessive melanin production and deposition in the skin. It may either cover a small portion of the body or cover large areas as well.  

I

Idebenone 

This skincare ingredient is a synthetic analog of the antioxidant-rich coenzyme Q10 and is used among skincare products to reduce the signs of aging in the skin. Idebenone protects the skin from UV light damage and lessens the wrinkles and fine lines present by neutralizing the effects of free radicals present in the cells.  

Ichthyosis 

Ichthyosis is a collective term for more than twenty skin disorders with scaling and dryness. It may be inherited or acquired and is most commonly found in the face, scalp, trunk, buttocks, and legs. The scales may range from color white to dark brown and have cracks running through them.  

Ingestible 

As the name implies, ingestible skincare includes any eaten or drunk product that helps improve the skin. Instead of working its magic topically, it works from within to support the skincare needs. Most of these ingestible include antioxidants that protect the cells from oxidative damage inside the body and environmental factors.  

Injectable 

Injectable skincare products are another route to care for the skin. Instead of being ingested or applied topically, it goes directly into the body once it is injected. It typically includes anti-aging products along with whitening, rejuvenating and moisturizing products. 

Intense pulsed light (IPL) 

This non-surgical procedure is a type of light therapy applied to individuals with signs of aging and unwanted hair. It also helps reduce sun damage, freckles, birthmarks, and many more. IPL can be applied in any part of the body, but it works better in even areas. 

Isolaz 

Introduced last 2005, it is one of the most popular acne treatments today. It uses a vacuum that loosens the sebum, dirt, dead skin cells on the surface and a broadband light that destroys the bacteria present in the skin. This treatment only lasts for 15 to 20 minutes with no downtime.  

J

Jelly

These are the jiggly gel-like texture of skincare products used to improve the skin. Jelly skincare products are lightweight, easily absorbed, and efficiently deliver moisture and nutrients into the skin. These kinds of products are suitable for any skin type, but they work better for combination skin and oily skin.  

Jessner peel 

A chemical peeling procedure involves placing acidic liquid into the skin that helps remove the dead skin cells and encourage new healthier ones. This procedure helps reduce visible signs of aging, dark patches, uneven skin tone or hyperpigmentation, and even scars.  

Jojoba oil 

It is extracted from the nut of the perennial plant, the jojoba plant, and is found in North America. It is known for its humectant properties that create a protective barrier in the skin to keep it moisturized. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of jojoba oil keep the skin healthy.  

Juvederm 

Juvederm is a cosmetic procedure that involves the use of fillers. Its base is composed of hyaluronic acid and is injected into the face to lessen the signs of aging and restore the contour of the face. It is suitable for patients with moderate to severe wrinkles and those who want to make their lips plumper.  

Juvederm Volbella XC 

Similar to Juvederm, this also involves using fillers to restore contours and reduce wrinkles and fine lines. However, compared to other fillers, this consists of using the thinnest and most spreadable base. It can be used for subtle lip enhancement and improving the vertical lip lines.  

Juvederm Voluma XC 

This procedure is also similar to Juvederm and Juvederm Volbella XC. However, it uses the thickest form of the base, making it suitable for filling the deeper layers. It is best for regaining the contours of the cheeks and lifting the face.  

K

K-beauty 

K-beauty is a trend that pertains to the Korean influence in skincare products and routines globally. It involves a ten-step routine that is focused on gentle cleansing and caring for the long term. However, it may be customized into more steps depending on each individual’s preference.  

Kakadu Plum 

If your skin needs a youthful and radiant glow, Kakadu Plum is the perfect skincare ingredient for you! This nutrient-rich fruit for Australia is rich in antioxidants and vitamin C that help reduce wrinkles and fine lines and boost your collagen. It also prevents inflammation and redness of the skin because of its anti-inflammatory properties.  

Kaolin 

Kaolin, originating from China, is a soft clay used in haircare and skincare products. It has been known as the gentlest clay incorporated in skincare products and can be used as an exfoliant. It also absorbs excess sebum in the skin that lessens the tendency for acne to develop.  

Keratin 

This major protein found in the hair and the skin can be extracted and used in rejuvenating skincare products. It has powerful moisturizing benefits and is known to improve the skin’s elasticity. When applied topically, it can halt the damage in the skin’s structural components, leaving it stronger and firmer. 

Keratosis pilaris 

A termed “chicken skin” is a harmless skin disorder that involves the appearance of small bumps that make the skin’s texture coarser than usual. It is caused by excess keratin that forms a plug to blog the entrance of hair follicles. Until today, the cause of the build-up is still unknown. 

Kinetin 

A known cytokinin is used as a skincare ingredient to reduce the visible signs of aging, keep the skin smooth, and even out hyperpigmentation. It also restores the skin barrier function that protects the skin surface from external damage. 

Kojic acid 

Is known to prevent the formation of tyrosine, the enzyme responsible for producing melanin that gives off the pigment of the skin. As a result, it can lighten the skin, scars, and age spots. It also has antimicrobial and antifungal properties that keep the skin protected.  

Kybella 

If you are facing problems with your double chin, Kybella is here to the rescue! This non-surgical treatment involves using injected deoxycholic acid in the submental fat to help destroy the fat cells present in the area. Once these cells are destroyed, fat can no longer be stored.  

L

Lactic acid 

It is considered an alpha-hydroxy acid naturally found in milk and synthetically produced for today’s skincare products. It helps exfoliate the skin and remove the dead skin cells to give the skin a radiant glow. Lactic acid also reduces wrinkles and fine lines and lightens age and dark spots.  

Laminaria saccharina 

Laminaria saccharina is known as a type of algae, and it can do wonders in the skin. The protective layer it creates keeps the skin smooth, hydrated and protected from damage. The laminarin from its molecular structure also offers anti-blemish properties that restore healthy and clear skin. 

Laser 

The use of lasers in skincare procedures is perhaps one of the best ways to address skin concerns. It may include treating acne scars, age spots, wrinkles, fine lines, rosacea, etc. Proper laser skin treatment keeps the skin young, glowing, and healthy.  

Laser genesis 

Laser genesis is a cosmetic procedure that uses a 1064 nm wavelength and heats the dermis to reduce the redness present on the surface. Patients diagnosed with rosacea greatly benefit from this procedure. It also enhances the production of collagen to keep the skin looking young and glowing.  

LED (light-emitting diode) 

LED is commonly used in therapies that emit wavelengths of light to treat skin conditions such as acne. It also helps reduce inflammation in the skin and promotes anti-aging effects. LED therapy is suitable for all skin colors, but it may be a little expensive, and the results are not 100% guaranteed.  

Licochalcone 

This skincare ingredient is included in the primary care for patients diagnosed with atopic dermatitis. It is typically used in elbow folds and other localized areas, and it is known to smoothen rough and flaky skin. Licochalcone also reduces itching and is suitable for both adults and children.  

Liposome 

Liposomes are tiny particles found in the cells of the body. They are utilized in skincare products as an efficient delivery system that carries the active ingredients into the deepest layers of the skin. Liposomes help deliver the nutrients and water into the aging cells that help improve look and the skin’s overall health. 

Lycopene 

Lycopene is a carotenoid that gives pigment to different plants and fruits. It is used in skincare products because its antioxidant properties help fight free radicals present in the body’s cells. As a result, the skin maintains its youthful and healthy look – both inside and out.  

M

Mandelic acid

It is considered an alpha-hydroxy acid extracted from almonds. It works on the skin by loosening the dead skin cells on the surface, allowing them to shed naturally. As a result, the complexion becomes fresher and brighter. This ingredient also increases cell turnover to reduce the potential for acne and skin damage. 

Marula oil 

Is originated from the marula tree’s kernels or outer husk and is commonly found in Africa. Due to having high protein content, it is widely used for hair and skin treatment. They have anti-aging properties, moisturizing benefits, and protect the skin from damaging sun rays.  

Matrixyl 3000 

Matrixyl 3000 is a non-surgical cosmetic procedure intended to reduce the signs of aging. It involves the use of synthetic peptides that enhance the production of collagen by signaling the cells to produce more. The effects of this procedure lead to firmer skin and fewer wrinkles and fine lines.  

Melanin 

Melanin is a natural pigment responsible for skin, eyes, and hair color. This pigment is produced by the cells called melanocytes. When you are more exposed to the sun, the melanocytes tend to produce more melanin to protect your skin from UV light damage.  

Melanocytes 

Melanocytes are the cells being responsible for producing melanin, the pigment that gives off color to the skin, eye, and hair. Each individual has the same number of melanocytes, but melanin production dramatically varies from one person to another. 

Melanoma 

It’s a kind of skin cancer that occurs when the cells responsible for producing melanin and melanocytes proliferate uncontrollably. This type is less common, but it is one of the fatal skin cancers if not diagnosed and controlled early. One of the earliest signs includes a noticeable change in an existing mole or a new pigmented growth on the skin. 

Melasma 

Melasma is characterized by a blotchy and brownish pigmentation present on both sides of the face. Women are most likely to develop this skin condition, primarily ages 20 to 40 years. Some factors included in the development of melasma include family history, sun exposure, pregnancy, hormonal imbalances, and medications. 

Menthol

Menthol is known as an organic compound extracted from peppermint and other mint oils. It is incorporated in skincare products for cooling properties. It also plays a role as a topical pain reliever suitable for painful skin disorders like severe acne. The cooling effect of menthol also alleviates sunburn and UV light damage.  

Mexoryl SX 

This particular skincare ingredient is commonly incorporated in lotions, creams, and sunscreens because of its ability to block UVA light rays. These rays can penetrate the deep layer of our skin and cause visible signs of aging and some types of skin cancers. Mexoryl SX offers protection and anti-aging benefits to its users. 

Micellar Water 

Micellar water is a versatile skincare essential made from purified water, moisturizers, and surfactants. This skincare product keeps the skin hydrated, pulls out the dirt, sebum, and makeup, and keeps the skin clear. This water is suitable for any skin type, especially for those with sensitive skin.  

Microbiome 

Microbiome pertains to the “ecosystem” present in a location. In the skin microbiome, billions of different microorganisms live in the different layers, primarily composed of bacteria. A healthy skin microbiome is essential because it equates to a healthy skin barrier that shields environmental triggers.  

Microdermabrasion 

This minimally invasive treatment is famous for improving the skin’s texture and overall tone. Microdermabrasion involves using a special applicator with an abrasive surface to smoothen the outermost layer of the skin, leaving it soft and rejuvenated. It also helps reduce age spots, wrinkles, fine lines, and other skin conditions. 

Microneedling 

Microneedling is a cosmetic procedure involving a derma-roller with tiny needles that prick the skin. It is commonly used in the face to treat several conditions like large pores, wrinkles, and scars. It aims to generate new collagen that helps the skin become firmer, smoother, and more toned.  

MMPI 20 

Wexler MMPI 20 is a skin brightening serum and a solid skincare product known to improve the skin significantly. It contains an ingredient that inhibits tyrosinase that leads to the reduced production of melanin. It helps tighten and refine the pores, reduce hyperpigmentation, and prevent visible signs of aging from developing.  

N

Neuromodulators 

Involve the use of injectable drugs that restricts the facial muscles from contracting. By limiting the movements of facial muscles, there is reduced formation of fine lines and wrinkles, less sebum production, and better facial contours. One of the most common examples of neuromodulators is Botox.  

Niacinamide 

Known as a form of Vitamin B3, niacinamide is one of the essential nutrients in the body. This skincare ingredient is also vital for overall skin health because it helps produce keratin that maintains its firmness. It also reduces the redness and blotchiness of the skin while creating a lipid barrier to retain moisture. 

O

Octocrylene 

A chemical ingredient used in sunscreens that helps protect the skin from UVA and UVB light rays. It is almost always incorporated as a skincare ingredient because it is also known to enhance the other ingredients’ stability and efficiency. 

Occlusives 

Occlusives fall under the category of moisturizing agents. It is a subclass that aims to maintain hydration by creating a seal over the skin. As a result, dryness and flakiness are reduced and prevented. It also help by protecting the skin from irritants and harmful particles present in the environment.  

Omega-3 fatty acids 

If you want to be protected from the harmful UVA and UVB rays, skincare products with omega-3 fatty acids are the ones for you! Studies have revealed that the two long-chain omega-3s can lessen skin sensitivity during sun exposure.  

Oxybenzone 

A skincare ingredient is primarily included in sunscreens that protect the skin from UVB and UVA light rays. Aside from sunscreens, they are also used as stabilizers to stop the products from degrading when exposed to sunlight.  

P

Panthenol 

Coming from vitamin B5, panthenol is a chemical ingredient incorporated in various cosmetics globally. It is primarily used in moisturizers because it has soothing and softening properties. This ingredient also helps build a more substantial skin barrier that keeps the skin hydrated and protected from irritation.  

Papain 

It is an enzyme found in the papaya fruit. Papain is used as an ingredient for exfoliating skin care products because of its ability to remove dead skin cells. These dead skin cells may clog the pores and lead to acne. Damaged keratin that causes small bumps in the skin can also be eliminated by papain.  

Parabens 

Parabens are preservatives used in various skincare ingredients to prolong their shelf life and prevent the growth of the microorganisms such as bacteria and mold that may be harmful to the users. However, they are not recommended anymore since studies have found their tendency to penetrate the deeper tissues and cause malignancies.  

Petroleum 

Petroleum is the main ingredient found in petroleum jelly, the semi-solid end product when various waxes and oils are combined. By forming a water-protective barrier on the skin surface, moisture and nutrients are retained. This ingredient is also widely used for its ability to heal scrapes and minor burns.  

Peels 

Using chemical peels helps improve the skin’s overall appearance by applying a solution that leads to peeling. Chemical peels are commonly used in the face and neck, and they are known to reduce the fine lines in the face, improve mild scars, reduce the severity of acne, and improve the overall look of the skin.  

Peptides

These naturally occurring amino acids found in the skin are primarily incorporated in skincare products because they stimulate the body to produce collagen. Consequently, your skin will start to look younger and firmer, with reduced visible signs of aging. Peptides also offer a good defense against bacteria present in the environment.  

pH

pH determines the acidity or alkalinity of substances. Our skin is a little more on the acidic side, and because of its acidity, the skin can fight off harmful microorganisms and free radicals. Factors that affect an individual’s skin pH include pollution, cosmetics, sun exposure, frequency of washing, and many more. 

Phloretin

This naturally occurring phenol obtained from the leaves of the apple tree is known for its antioxidant properties. Phloretin neutralizes the free radicals and keeps the skin protected. It also has skin-soothing properties and the ability to even out and improve skin tone. When this ingredient is properly formulated, it can go beyond the superficial skin and penetrate the deeper layers.  

Phthalates 

Are chemicals primarily used to enhance the flexibility of plastics to prevent easy breakage. It is also used as a binding agent or solvent among cosmetic and skincare products. Studies have revealed that exposure to this chemical may increase the risk of allergic reactions, reproductive defects, and infertility.  

Phytonutrients 

Are derived from plants that bring a lot of benefits when incorporated into skincare products. They have antioxidant properties that help neutralize the damage caused by free radicals. It also strengthens the skin’s layers and maintains a radiant and healthy glow. 

Picosecond laser 

It is a cosmetic device that involves short pulse durations for exogenous and endogenous pigmentations present in the skin. This procedure is indicated for patients who want their tattoo removed, individuals with melasma, minocycline-induced pigmentation, and other specific conditions. 

Plant stem cell 

Similar to human cells, plant cells are also undifferentiated cells that will further proliferate and become specialized. These are added to skincare products because they contain antioxidant properties that protect the skin against harmful UV rays, keeps the skin youthful by preventing signs of aging, and promote collagen production.  

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) 

This procedure involves drawing blood from the body and placing it into a machine to filter the platelets from the blood and then reinjecting them into the body once again. Studies have shown that PRP helps reduce signs of aging, lessen deep creases and lines, reduce acne scars and make the skin plumper.  

Polyhydroxy acids (PHA) 

These acids may be considered a family of alpha-hydroxy acids. PHAs are commonly used in skincare ingredients because they are excellent exfoliants. They help to remove the dead skin cells from the surface, leaving the skin smoother and lighter. This ingredient also enhances the efficacy of skincare by improving the penetration ability of the product.  

Pomegranate 

Pomegranate is a fruit commonly used in skincare products because of its anti-aging properties. This fruit has punicic acid, which helps replenish the skin and give it life by preventing moisture loss. It also contains three types of antioxidants that make the skin look younger and healthier. 

Probiotics 

Probiotics are live bacteria considered as “good” because it helps keep healthy bacteria in the body. According to studies, probiotics are beneficial to individuals with acne, eczema, flaky skin, and sun-damaged skin. This skincare ingredient promotes ceramide production in the body that traps moisture in the skin. 

Propolis 

Propolis originates from the combination of beeswax and tree sap and is used in cosmetic and skincare products to treat acne. It imparts antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial properties and keeps the skin healthy and, at the same time, softens and smoothes the skin. This skincare ingredient also soothes mild sunburns and neutralizes free radicals with its antioxidant properties.  

Pycnogenol 

Pycnogenol is obtained from pine bark extract is found to be effective by studies in exerting its antioxidant properties on the skin. It works by binding into the elastin and collagen to prevent degradation by neutralizing the present free radicals in the cells. It also lessens the tendency of scar formation, wrinkle formation, and hyperpigmentation.  

Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) 

This skincare condition occurs right after an inflammatory disorder or injury to the skin. PIH is more commonly observed in individuals with darker skin tones and is frequently found at the same site where the disease or injury occurred after healing. It ranges from light brown to black and may seem darker under sun exposure. 

Psoriasis 

A skin condition wherein the cells of the skin proliferate about ten times faster than the normal rate. As a result, the presence of bumpy erythematous patches with white scales is deposited on the skin surface. It may appear in the scalp, elbows, lower back, and knees. The exact cause of psoriasis is still unknown, but it is believed to be associated with immune system malfunction. 

Q

Q-switched lasers 

Involves the use of a non-invasive laser that produces high-intensity pulsed beam light for several conditions. These include treatment of age spots, moles, freckles, telangiectasia, port wine stains, and they may also be used for tattoo removal procedures. It can shatter small fragments of pigmentations or inks from tattoos and may also enhance collagen production. 

R

Radiofrequency 

Therapies involving radiofrequency rose to fame because of their promising results in skin tightening. It is non-surgical and consists of using energy waves as heat to penetrate the deep layers of the skin. In turn, the heat it produces enhances collagen production leaving the skin firm and with less visible signs of aging.  

Red Light Therapy

Red light improves the skin tone & texture by boosting blood flow while spurring the production of collagen and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Infrared light, with 880 nm of wavelength, and red light, with a wavelength of 660 nm, combine to create a regenerating effect in aging skin. This red light has a longer wavelength, penetrating deeper into the skin than blue light.

Restylane 

It is a hyaluronic-acid-based filler used to enhance the contour of the face, keeping it plumper and smoothing out the wrinkles present. Restylane may be used in the cheeks, around the mouth, nasolabial folds, and lips. The procedure is minimally invasive and is done with the use of local anesthesia. 

Resveratrol 

This skincare ingredient with antioxidant properties is commonly obtained from berries, peanuts, and grape skin. Since it is rich in antioxidants, it fights off and neutralizes the free radicals in the cells to fight aging. It also helps repair and prevents damage in all skin types. Healthy cell proliferation is also stimulated by resveratrol. 

Retin-A 

Otherwise known as tretinoin, it is one form of topical vitamin A from the group of retinoids. It is typically applied in the face, and it helps shed the outermost layers of keratinocytes to keep the skin brighter, smoother, and more evenly toned. This ingredient is typically used as an acne treatment, but it is also known to enhance the cell turnover rate and collagen production, leaving the skin radiant and younger-looking!  

Retinoids 

Retinoids are another vitamin A-based topical medication that is widely used for their anti-aging properties. They are known to lessen wrinkles and fine lines by enhancing collagen production. Skin color is also improved with retinoids because it stimulates the blood vessels in the skin.  

Retinol 

Known as another type of retinoid obtained from vitamin A, retinol works by penetrating deep into the dermis to neutralize the free radicals. It also encourages collagen and elastin production, leading to plumper skin with reduced wrinkles, fine lines, and sagging skin. Lastly, it can improve the skin’s texture and tone through its exfoliating effect on the surface. 

Rosacea 

A skin condition manifested by redness primarily observed on the forehead, nose, cheeks, and chin. Patients with this disorder may also experience stinging of the skin, patches of dry and flaky skin, bumps on the surface, and enlarged pores. The exact mechanism of rosacea is unknown, but few contributory factors include genes, bacteria, and blood vessel conditions.  

S

Salicylic acid 

It belongs to the group of “Beta Hydroxy Acids.”  Salicylic acid is primarily included in skincare products because of its promising effects in the treatment of acne. By exfoliating the skin surface and penetrating the layers of the skin to unclog the pores, Salicylic acid ensures that the acne is reduced and future breakouts are prevented.  

Sculpsure 

A non-invasive and non-surgical treatment that helps the patient stay in shape. It involves a light-based technology that destroys fat cells in stubborn body areas and is usually done in the stomach, love handles, thighs, and back. The treatment lasts for 25 minutes with no downtime.  

Sculptra 

Sculptra Aesthetic is a procedure that helps restore degraded collagen in the skin. It involves injecting a “Poly-L-Lactic-Acid” collagen stimulator deep into the dermis to promote collagen production. The results of this procedure include reduced wrinkles and fine lines and improved skin volume and inner structure for more than two years. 

Sebum 

The sebaceous glands in the body produce an oily and waxy substance called sebum. It aims to coat, protect, and moisturize the skin. A mixture of different substances such as sugars, waxes, and fatty acids forms a protective barrier on the skin surface. Our hormones play a great role in the regulation of sebum production.  

Serum 

A serum is a skincare product that contains highly concentrated ingredients to be delivered into the skin. There are various types of serums available for each skin type and several purposes. Serums are known to hydrate and deliver active ingredients into the deeper layers of the skin than heavy creams.  

Sheet masks 

Sheet masks are face-shaped sheets soaked with a solution rich in active ingredients and nutrients. After cleaning the face, it can be easily applied and soaked depending on the directions placed in the packaging. The sheet prevents the nutrients and serum from evaporating easily and delivers everything into the deeper layers of the skin.  

Silicone 

Silicone is an ingredient obtained from silica and is primarily used in cosmetics for its silky-smooth finish. Crevices and cracks on the skin surface are easily filled with silicone making it easier for makeup to attach better. It also keeps the skin hydrated because it creates a barrier that prevents moisture from evaporating. 

Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) 

It is derived from sodium lauryl sulfate after ethylene oxide is added to the compound. It is safer compared to SLS and would not cause any dryness or cracking on the skin surface. This ingredient is also incorporated in cleansing foams and face washes that leave the skin smooth and nourished.  

Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) 

Sodium lauryl sulfate can be found in any skincare product that lathers up. It may range from face washes, cleansing foams, shaving creams, and the like. However, there have been reported issues of skin irritation with this ingredient when left in the skin for a long time. It may also cause the skin to dry up and crack.  

Soy 

Soy-based skincare products offer huge beauty benefits because isoflavones can be extracted from them. These compounds play a significant role in the reduction of the visible signs of aging. Dullness, fine lines, and wrinkles are lessened with this ingredient, making the skin appear more radiant and brighter. 

Stearyl alcohol 

Stearyl alcohol is known as natural fatty alcohol and is used in skincare products and functions as an emulsifier, emollient, and thickener. This ingredient enhances the texture of products making them more spreadable. As an emollient, it helps soothe and soften the skin by creating a barrier to seal in the moisture and nutrients of the products applied.  

Squalene 

This colorless hydrocarbon is naturally found in several plants and animals, and also the human sebum. This natural lipid is produced by the body to keep the skin lubricated and protected. As a skincare ingredient, it protects the skin by acting as an emollient that forms a barrier to lock in moisture and nutrients. It also offers antioxidant properties that reduce wrinkles and fine lines.  

Sulfates 

The ingredient responsible for making toothpaste, shampoos, soaps, and body wash lather is sulfate. These are surfactants known to attract water and oil, so they effectively wash off the dirt on the body. However, sulfates tend to dry up the skin and leave the skin flaky and cracked when they are left on the body for a long time. An example of sulfate includes SLS. 

Sulfur

Sulfur is a natural element needed for the function of living cells. This ingredient is commonly found as part of acne treatments, face masks, and soaps because it lessens the sebum produced in the skin. It also dries out blemishes and exfoliates the dead skin cells on the surface, making them brighter and more evenly toned.  

Sunflower oil 

Sunflower oil is extracted from the beautiful sunflowers seeds and contains nutrients that help the skin look better. As an emollient, sunflower oil hydrates the skin by sealing moistures and nutrients. This oil is also rich in antioxidants that help defend the skin from free radicals and early aging.  

Surfactants 

Surfactants are the main components of cleansing agents like soaps, facial wash, and hair products. When mixed with water, it creates a foamy reaction perfect for loosening and removing the dirt present in the skin and hair. It also acts as an emulsifier that helps stabilize a mixture of miscible and immiscible substances. 

T

Thermage 

A non-surgical and non-invasive treatment designed to smoothen, tighten, and contour the skin for a more youthful appearance. It involves the use of radiofrequency that releases heat to separate water molecules from collagen. As a result, there will be contraction that leads to tightening of the skin. Enhanced collagen growth also keeps the skin firm over time.  

Titanium dioxide 

This naturally occurring mineral is often used as an ingredient in skincare products and cosmetics because of its ability to refract light. It can be used as a brightener, opacifier, and pigment. Titanium oxide is also an effective UV filter that protects the skin from damaging rays. Users must avoid inhaling products containing this ingredient because it is possibly carcinogenic.  

Tranexamic acid 

A synthetic derivative of lysine and is used as a topical skincare ingredient for improving skin complexion. It helps lessen the skin discoloration and uneven tone caused by UV exposure and other treatments. Aside from lessening hyperpigmentation, it also gives the skin a brighter appearance.  

Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 

TCA is used in a non-invasive peeling treatment that helps improve skin conditions like melasma, scarring, and signs of aging. It helps exfoliate the skin and thus removes dead cells to reveal newer, brighter, and younger-looking skin. It only takes 30 minutes with no downtime.  

Toluene 

Toluene is a colorless and aromatic liquid used as an ingredient for nail and hair products because of its property as a solvent. It is mostly used to dissolve substances. Exposure to this ingredient may cause dizziness, headache, and cracking of the skin.  

Toner 

Toner is a skincare product that contains certain ingredients to eliminate the sebum and dirt present in the skin. Some toners have high alcohol content, and some are alcohol-free. You can use it after cleansing the face both during day and night time skincare routines. Toners are meant to remove the dirt and exfoliate your skin to keep it fresh and radiant. 

Turmeric 

A bright and yellow-orange spice closely related to ginger. Curcumin substance is found in turmeric, which is known to contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It helps promote the skin’s natural glow and luster while protecting it from the potential damage of free radicals.  

U

Ultherapy 

This treatment is a non-invasive and non-surgical procedure aiming to stimulate collagen and elastin production in the cells of the body. This therapy involves a micro-focused ultrasound that creates a thermal effect in the layers of the skin. As a result, the skin becomes younger-looking, firmer, and plumper.  

Ultraviolet A (UVA-RAYS)

Also known as long-wave light, they represent approximately 95% of the radiation penetrating the earth’s surface. These rays can penetrate up to the second layer of the skin and cause premature indications of aging, e.g., fine lines, wrinkles and sunspots.  

Ultraviolet B (UVB-RAYS)

Also known as short-wave light, it primarily affects the outermost layer of skin and is the known cause of skin erythema and sunburn. It tends to damage the DNA in the cells that may lead to skin malignancies. The intensity of UVB rays depends on the location, particular time of the day, and season. 

Ultraviolet C (UVC-RAYS)

UVC rays are the shortest wavelengths among the three types of UV rays. Unlike UVA and UVB rays, this particular type never reaches the earth’s surface because it is absorbed by the ozone layer. You can find this type of UV rays in man-made sources such as mercury lamps.  

UREA 40 

The formulation of urea 40 is specifically designed to treat skin conditions presenting with dryness and roughness, such as psoriasis and eczema. Urea has keratolytic properties that help eliminate dead skin cells on the surface and enhances its moisture by dissolving keratin in the skin. Consequently, the dead skin cells are removed, and the water is retained in the skin.  

V

Vampire facial 

Vampire facial is a cosmetic treatment that combines microdermabrasion with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). It begins with extracting blood from the patient and processing it to separate the plasma; then, microdermabrasion will be done on the skin just before PRP is slathered all over the face. It enhances the cell turnover and leaves the skin looking young and vibrant. 

VBeam

VBeam is a non-surgical treatment that involves using pulsed dye laser for the treatment of blood-vessel-related skin conditions. Individuals with port wine stains, rosacea, acne, and spider veins will significantly benefit from this treatment. Thus, the skin becomes softer, more evenly toned, and with fewer scars.  

Vitamin A 

This vitamin protects and supports the skin because our skin is a known retinoid-responsive organ. When vitamin A is applied topically, it helps stimulate the production of new skin cells. It also promotes collagen production that keeps the skin firm and tight, thus preventing the formation of wrinkles and fine lines. 

Vitamin B 

The majority of the B vitamins work to keep the skin healthy and glowing. Thiamine keeps the skin young-looking because it prevents the formation of wrinkles and fine lines. Riboflavin balances the natural oils in the skin, and pyridoxine prevents acne breakouts. Biotin brightens dull skin, and cobalamin lessens the dark spots and improves uneven skin tone.  

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) 

Vitamin C is an antioxidant-rich substance used in skincare products because it defends the cells from the damage of free radicals. It also reduces the skin’s hyperpigmentation and dark spots, reduces the appearance of signs of aging, and boosts the collagen production of the cells.

Vitamin D 

When the body has sufficient amounts of vitamin D, premature skin aging is prevented. This vitamin also helps treat conditions involving dryness, like psoriasis and eczema. Calcitriol, the active form of this vitamin, also contributes to the healthy growth of cells as well as the repair and protection of the cells.  

Vitamin E (Tocopherol) 

This fat-soluble vitamin not only supports the immune system but also ensures optimal skin health. Since vitamin E is highly rich in antioxidants, it combats the free radicals produced inside the body to keep the skin young and radiant. It also protects the skin from the damaging effects of UV light rays from sun exposure.  

Vitamin K 

It is another fat-soluble vitamin playing a role in several bodily functions. Vitamin K may contain some antioxidant properties that can help defend the body against the effects of free radicals. It is also known to promote wound healing by enhancing the contraction and promotion of collagen.  

W

Walnut seed oil 

This seed oil is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acid that helps protect the skin because of its antioxidant properties. Free radicals are neutralized, and premature aging is halted with walnut seed oil. It also helps prevent hair loss and dandruff and promotes the growth of healthy hair. 

Watermelon seed oil 

It is extracted from the seeds of watermelon for its highly nutritious benefits. They are unsaturated fatty acids that are easily absorbed, light on the skin, and tend to clog the pores up. You can use it to lessen the puffiness and dark circles found in the eyes and reduce visible signs of aging.  

X

Xeomin 

Xeomin is a medication prescribed to individuals who want to improve their physical appearance, especially their wrinkles and fine lines. It involves botulinum toxin type A, which helps enhance the lines found in the glabellar lines of adults. This medication works by preventing the muscle fibers from contracting to lessen the lines on the forehead.  

Y

Yeast Extract

Yeast contains beta-glucan, which is eventually a great soothing ingredient and also a mild antioxidant. The yeast extract is a silky clear liquid with tremendous moisturizing, skin protecting and film-forming properties on the skin.

Z

Zinc oxide 

This oxidized zinc obtained from zincite is widely used in cosmetics and skincare products. Zinc oxide helps protect the skin from the damaging effects of the UV rays and prevents the skin from drying out too quickly and being sunburnt. Individuals with mild wounds and sunburns would also benefit from this ingredient. Lastly, You can use it as an astringent that removes the sebum present on the skin surface. 

Final Thoughts 

Since thousands of skincare products and cosmetics are available in the market for use, looking up the ingredients is vital. Knowing and understanding the ingredients in skincare products will help you choose the right skincare products that address your skin type and condition. Also, it will help you avoid the use of harmful and poisonous substances that may do more damage than good.  

The first step of taking care of your skin is knowing your skin type and what you apply to your skin. Be a responsible user and always check the label before buying.

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3 Comments

    • Thank you, Doug.

  1. Hello.This article was extremely motivating, especially because I was investigating for thoughts on this subject last Saturday.

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